EM 540 FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)

Greetings to EM 540 Audiobridge Participants--

The information in this FAQ (frequently asked questions) file is intended
to provide you with basic course information, along with some URLs I have
identified to be helpful along the way.

What should I do first in this course?

Be sure to send me an e-mail message with basic introductory information.
When we begin class, we will be starting with the text, since there is so 
much to cover.

When you are sending e-mail, please submit *plain, vanilla* e-mail as I do
not read e-mail with MIME attachments.

By the way, we will be communicating through email throughout the course.

When can I go to the site lab?

Remember that your site lab assistant will be available *all* sessions, in
the event that you need assistance with your assignments, going
online, searching, etc.

What do I do if I have online problems?

If you are having a computer or technical support problem, you will need to 
contact the people who handle these activities.  Main Help Desk (800-541-6682), ext. 4357 

How do I get my questions about the class answered?

Any questions that relate to the EM 540 class or course content should be 
sent to me through email.  GTEP staff cannot answer these questions for you.

I don't have an online account.  Can I use my husband's/wife's, 
sister/brother-in-law's, daughter's/son's, etc., account?

Please know that I cannot send information that relates to you, or your
activities as a student, to any email account other than your own.  Please
do not send me a message through someone else's account and expect me to
return a message of significant content to you.  Although I am in no way an
Internet policeperson, I would caution you against doing this since you
never know who might question your use of accounts.  NSU and FIRN frown on
this practice--big time!  Many of our students use free personal accounts
through Hotmail .

How can I forward my NSU e-mail to another account?

For information on forwarding your NSU e-mail to another e-mail address, follow 
these instructions.

What about using FIRN accounts?

On March 2, 1999, we were notified that "FIRNmail is being retired," and
will be completely deactivated by January 1, 2000.  If you would like to
register for a POPmail account (that requires a high-speed modem), then
follow these directions that were provided by FIRN:

"You can register for POPmail via the dial-up process:
    1)	Dial and connect to a FIRN number
    2)	for username, type netreg (must be lower case)
    3)	for password, type firn (must be lower case)
    4)	read the screen info presented then type netreg again
    5)	select the POPmail account option
    6)	complete the registration information
    7)	PLEASE NOTE: your POPmail username and password will be assigned 
        and given to you online during registration - NOTHING will be 
        postal mailed to you so be sure to write them down.

You can register for POPmail via a direct connect at school or via another 
ISP Internet access:
    1)	telnet to wizard.firn.edu
    2)	read the screen info presented then type netreg
    3)	select the POPmail account option
    4)	complete the registration information
    5)	PLEASE NOTE: your POPmail username and password will be assigned 
        and given to you online during registation - NOTHING will be postal 
        mailed to you so be sure to write them down.

If you have questions, please phone the FIRN Helpdesk at 800/749-3476."

Is there anything special I should do at/before audiobridge?

For the consideration of all participants, turn off any speakerphone feature 
before calling into class.  Although I know this feature is very convenient 
for the student who is using it, speakerphones distort the sound quality for 
the rest of us.  

It is expected that all students and facilitators submit data sheets on the 
first day of class.  Forms are available online at the NSU Educational Media Web Page.

How can I help the instructor to speed up answers to my e-mail?

When sending messages to me, please note the course number to which you are 
referring.  I work with many students, facilitators, and lab monitors each 
term, and this notation would certainly help me to speed information 
along to you.

What is the first page for an assignment?

Remember to put a heading or a cover sheet on every assignment that
you submit.

How long does it take to get assignments back?

I do my best to return assignments to you as soon as possible.  To speed up
this process, submit your assignments directly to me (P.O. Box 273404, Boca
Raton, FL  33427) and include a self-addressed, stamped envelope for the
return of the assignment.  Obviously, physical turnaround takes a bit
of time, not to mention the time that it will take me to evaluate what has
been submitted.  Nevertheless, I will try to proceed rapidly. Please be sure
to keep a copy of all messages that pertain to grades.

Are there any tricks to finding out about library resources for distance learning students at NSU?

Libraries Having Formal Agreements with Nova Southeastern University
The following libraries have formal agreements with NSU stating that NSU
students have use of the library and, sometimes for a fee, NSU students are 
eligible for a library card.  According to the Directory of Selected Academic
Libraries Near Off-Campus Program Sites, a document issued by NSU's Office
of Resource Information for External Programs, "NSU programs usually will
reimburse a student for one library card at an appropriate institution.
However, some programs set limits of $50.00 or $100.00 per student" (p.

According to this document, GTEP students are eligible for services in the
following sites (listed in order, as listed in the Directory):

Florida  -  Daytona Beach Area

1.  Stetson University - DeLand, Florida ($35/$100)
2.  University of Florida - Gainesville, Florida (No fee stated)
3.  University of Central Florida - Orlando, Florida ($60)
4.  Rollins College - Winter Park, Florida ($50)
5.  Bethune-Cookman College - Daytona Beach, Florida (No fee stated)

         -  Fort Myers Area

1.  Eckerd College - St. Petersburg, Florida ($30)
2.  New College of the University of South Florida - Sarasota ($50)
3.  University of South Florida - Tampa, Florida ($50)
4.  University of Tampa - Tampa, Florida ($20)

         -  Gainesville Area

1.  University of North Florida - Jacksonville, Florida (No fee stated)
2.  Jacksonville University - Jacksonville, Florida (No fee stated)
3.  University of Florida - Gainesville, Florida (No fee stated)
4.  Stetson University - DeLand, Florida ($35/$100)
         -  Melbourne Area

1.  Florida Institute of Technology - Melbourne, Florida ($50)
2.  University of Central Florida - Orlando, Florida ($60)

         -  Orlando Area

1.  University of Central Florida - Orlando, Florida ($60)
2.  Stetson University - DeLand, Florida ($35/$100)
3.  Orlando College - Orlando, Florida (No fee stated)
4.  Rollins College - Winter Park, Florida ($50)

         -  Sarasota Area

1.  University of Tampa - Tampa, Florida ($20)
2.  University of South Florida - Tampa, Florida ($50)

         -  Tampa Area

1.  University of South Florida - Tampa, Florida ($50)
2.  Eckerd College - St. Petersburg, Florida ($30)
3.  University of Tampa - Tampa, Florida ($20)

         -  West Palm Beach Area

1.  Florida Atlantic University - Boca Raton, Florida (No fee through SEFLIN Card Privileges)
2.  Palm Beach Atlantic College - West Palm Beach, Florida (No fee stated)

Nevada   -  Las Vegas

1.  University of Nevada - Las Vegas, Nevada (No fee stated)

If there is *No fee stated*, you must usually provide some proof of
residency, picture ID, driver's license, local library card, etc., and then
fill out a form.  The fee is usually charged for borrowing privileges and
other services, such as interlibrary loan.

For reimbursement, send a copy of your receipt and a written request to 
Mr. Tim Shields at the North Miami Beach GTEP Site.
Are there any other library resources for South Florida Students?

Let's imagine a situation where you cannot find the library
materials that you wish to use at the NSU Einstein Library.  What
are your alternatives?  You could request interlibrary loan
services, or you can use the services of another library, such as
your public library.  But, you still have other options!

Did you know that if you are a student, faculty member, or
professional staff member of NSU that you are eligible for user
privileges at the following libraries that are members of SEFLIN
(Southeast Florida Library Network)?

Which libraries are included in SEFLIN?

Broward Community College (North and South Regional Campuses)
Florida Atlantic University (Boca and Palm Beach Gardens Campuses)
Florida International University (North Miami and University Park Campuses)
International Fine Arts College
Lynn University
Miami-Dade Community College (All campuses)
Northwood University
Palm Beach Atlantic College
Palm Beach Community College (Central Campus)
St. Thomas University (Main Campus)
Trinity College at Miami

What do you need to do to use library services of SEFLIN
member libraries?

1. Get a student identification card made at the NSU Registrar's
Office. (Call for business hours.)
2. Go to the NSU's Einstein Library in the Parker Building and
request a SEFLIN card.
3. Take the SEFLIN card, NSU identification card, and driver's
license to the library circulation desk of the college/university
at which you wish to use library services.  (You may wish to use
the services of several libraries and you will need to apply for
services at each separate library.)
4. You will be given a library card for that particular
university which you will have to present each time you borrow
5. All privileges are determined by the lending library.
6. Review the rules of SEFLIN and know your responsibilities.

NOTE:  You will probably have to fill out forms for each library
from which you request a card, but you will need only ONE SEFLIN
card, regardless of how many different library cards you apply

Additionally, in addition to the sites listed above, faculty 
members are able to use the following libraries:

Barry University
Broward Community College (Central Campus)
Palm Beach Community College (Belle Glade and Eissey Campuses)
University of Miami (Richter Library)

Enjoy this great service that NSU provides for you!  And don't
forget that many of these universities provide web-page library
information.  Search before you go!

What are the electronic databases available to me at NSU?

Go into the "el" (Electronic Library) to check the many valuable 
databases that are free for your use as a GTEP student.  

Did you know that you have access to the online Book Review Digest through
el?  Try it out!

There sure is a lot of information to know for this course.  Can you
help me to organize the content for studying?

I know that many of you are wondering how you are going to categorize much
of the information of your text into meaningful memory?  To aid in this
process, I suggest that you use your table of contents and glossary as a 
listing of terms and sources that I believe to be of importance to the school 
library media specialist.  

Here are some notes that may be of use during the course:

Chapter Notes

During Session 6, you will have an in-class writing activity at 
your site.  So you can begin to prepare for this activity, 
the topic for this class will relate to the processes of descriptive
cataloging and subject cataloging.

You will be able to use the textbook, notes, laptops, etc., but I'm sure
that you will want to be reading up on the topic now.

Also, to help you prepare for the final exam for this course, I'm listing
some areas that you will wish to focus on:

1. cataloging *vocabulary*, e.g., delimiters, GMD, ISBN, LCCN, LCSH, 
segmentation, CIP, etc.
2. levels of cataloging
3. Annotated Card program
4. punctuation used in creating bibliographic records
5. sources for cataloging information (both chief sources and reference
6. rule of three
7. eight bibliographic areas
8. main entry
9. uniform authors/titles
10. bibliographic networks
11. MARC records (basic field tag numbers)
12. collocate
13. DDC - Relative index
14. LC
15. Sears - Key headings
16. cataloging policies
17. access points
18. online resources for cataloging information
19. AACR2r
You may also add topics to this list as we progress through the course.  The 
final exam is an objective test composed of 50 multiple choice questions.

I hope this information will help you to organize your study of organization
of media collections.


Here are some of my best ideas for you to follow as you work with your
cataloging assignments:

1.  Are you sure of capitalization rules?  Have you paid attention to when
to capitalize in titles?  In subject headings?  In added entries?

2.  What types of abbreviations are used for states?

3.  How is a series listed?

4.  Are you sure you are using the card set format in Mitinet/MARC?

5.  Do you remember when to include information from catalog copy?  When do
you edit?  What happens to shelf marks, prices, barcodes, etc.?

6.  Did you check the punctuation and spacing throughout your record?  Do
spaces usually precede and follow punctuation marks?

7.  Where does the ISBN go in a record?

8.  If you don't precede a description of a title with *Summary*, can you
*assume* that a student will know what s/he is reading?

9.  When including added entries, have you checked to make sure that the
person's contribution is evident in the body of the record?

10. Are your records consistent?  Have you compared records to each other
to help you identify inconsistencies?

Can you think of other ideas we should add to the list?


Chapter 1

Chapter 1 offers general information on the background of the why's of
cataloging.  Be sure to note the information on OCLC.


Chapter 2

Chapter 2 addresses the different levels of cataloging (3) and describes how
each level differs.  Which level to you need for sharing cataloging records?  
Why?  Cataloging-In-Publication, a wonderful tool for media specialists, is
also described in this chapter.  You will probably be looking to see which 
books have CIP data, after you have used all of the CIP records.

Also in this chapters, you will find examples of records that have AC 
headings.  If you will look at page 130, you will find out what this very
important tool is.  

Subject authorities are mentioned in Chapter 2.  What is the subject authority
that is used in most K-12 school media centers?

Chapter 5

Chapter 5, the chapter on access was a critical one, in the days when all
catalogs were paper-based and the main entry record was the complete
record, usually located under the author's name.  Today, the choice of main
entry is not so critical, in terms of how the user accesses information in
automated catalogs, because the automated database will automatically link
to the complete record based on the design of the database.  

However, the choice of main entry does still impact the item's call number.
How?  In K-12 schools, we usually *cutter* the item according to its main
entry.  So, if a cookbook's main entry is under the author's name, Jones,
the call number might be 641.5 JON.  If there are more than ? authors (you
tell me the number), the main entry is under the title.  A book named
_Student Cooking at NSU_ might have a call number of 641.5 STU.  

Which tool gives you guidance as to how to choose the main entry of an

Nova Southeastern University would qualify as a corporate body.  Do you
know when it would be appropriate to use a corporate body as a main entry?
A corporate body that is common in K-12 schools is the National Geographic

Sometimes it is correct to use the title main entry, in cases other than
that given for multiple authors.  Do you know why?

Now that you've *mastered* the concept of main entry and corporate bodies,
let's think about _added entries_.  What are added entries?  These are the
names and titles to which we direct the customer's attention so that he or
she will still be able to access an item, even if the main entry or related
subject heading is not known.

For example, let's consider your textbook.  Remember where to find its CIP?
Ok, now, let's look to see how many authors are responsible for your
textbook.  Sheila Intner is the first listed author, and the title's main
entry is listed under her name.  But, let's consider that we've forgotten
Intner's name and the book's title and we only remember the other author's
name, Jean Weihs.  Without an added entry under the name of Weihs, we would not be able to locate the title.  Do you notice how added entries are listed
under Roman numerals, to distinguish them from subject headings?

Also, the concept of a uniform title is very important to the elementary
school media specialist, especially in the area of fairy tales?  Why?
There are many variant titles for fairy tales, because they have been
retold in a variety of formats, with literary credit being given to those
that re-package the tales.  The uniform title gives us access to the
titles, based on the most common way of phrasing the title.  Your text
offers a very good example for Mother Goose.  Can you think of others?
What about Grimm's Fairy Tales?  Do you know how this title is listed in
your media center?


Chapter 7

Be sure to look at the Sears List prepages (xxxix - lii).  Of
particular importance are the lists of headings to be added by the
cataloger, "key" headings and the commonly used subdivisions.  Until you
review these lists, you might be thinking you are very limited in the
subject headings you can offer in your center, but this is not true.  These
lists will give you direction for how you can add headings to the database,
along with how you can add subdivisions that will list more accurately the
item you are describing.

On the "key" headings, don't miss the point that the "key" heading can be
used for any other item that fits into the category.  For example, under
places, the United States is the key heading for countries.  So, if you are
cataloging materials about France, look under "United States" for examples
of headings to use.  Likewise, if you are cataloging materials about
Florida, look under "Ohio" to find examples of headings to use.  And if you
are cataloging materials about Daytona Beach, look under "Chicago (Ill.)"
for examples.  

Where would you find examples about kings?  About Toni Morrison?  About The
Gulf War?  I look forward to hearing about your reactions to these
time-saving features.


Chapter 9

We need to stress the importance of analyzing a Dewey Decimal classification 
number when cataloging.  Why?

Remember the different policies that related to cataloging (such as the
level to which you are expanding the number, based on segmentation, shelf
marks, copy designation, etc.).  You will have to "customize" the Dewey
numbers in the record being *copied* to agree with the policies of your
media center.  

Let's look at some examples.  The first three records are provided by 
the publisher (Libraries Unlimited) for titles that they publish.

You will probably agree that this format is a bit more "user-friendly" than
some of the other MARC outputs.  Please recall that different vendors
provide different formats.  (This is a consideration when you are
evaluating systems for your media center.)

If you would like to revisit the online record for the title by Miller, the
URL is:  http://www.lu.com/marc/milint96.mrc

--->  What is the Dewey number for this record?  What is the number you
would use for *your* school?  Would you use the complete number, or would
you break it at the segment?  (How would you decide this?  Check with your
district to see if there is a policy.  Otherwise, base the decision on the
size of your collection.  Most PreK-12 schools can safely cut the number
after the first segment.)

Template: Std-Bk  ; Bk    Created: 05-15-97    Updated: 05-17-97
Leader: |00912nam  2200217 a 4500|
005:    |19970517162339.0|
008:    |970515s1997    cou           001 0 eng  |

ISBN Numb  020 __ a  1563085062
F050 SubA  050 __ a  TK5105.875.157M55 1997
F082 SubA  082 __ a  371.3'34574--dc20
MEPN Name  100 1_ a  Miller, Elizabeth B.
Titl Main  245 14 a  The Internet resource directory for K-12
                     teachers and librarians /
     Resp         c  Elizabeth B. Miller.
Edit Stmt  250 __ a  96/97 ed.
Pubn City  260 __ a  Englewood, CO :
     Publ         b  Libraries Unlimited, Inc.,
     Date         c  1997.
Desc Extn  300 __ a  xv, 220 p. ;
     Dimn         c  19x26 cm.
Note Genl  500 __ a  Includes indexes.
Note Genl  500 __ a  Cataloging information taken from Library of
                     Congress CIP, input by Libraries Unlimited.
Subj Topc  650 _0 a  Internet (Computer network)
     Genl         x  Directories.
Subj Topc  650 _0 a  Databases
     Geog         z  United States
     Genl         x  Directories.
Subj Topc  650 _0 a  Education, Elementary
     Geog         z  United States
     Genl         x  Information services
     Genl         x  Directories.
Subj Topc  650 _0 a  Education, Secondary
     Geog         z  United States
     Genl         x  Information services
     Genl         x  Directories.

--->  Let's think about the next title.  Who would be using this book?  Would
you put it in the Professional Library?  Would it be designated as
Reference?  How would you designate that?  How will you include these terms
in your policy--PRO, P, Pro, REF, R, Ref?


Template: LU      ; Bk    Created: 04-07-97    Updated: 04-08-97
Leader: |00949nam  2200253 a 4500|
005:    |19970408220659.0|
008:    |970407s1992    coua          001 0 eng  |

LCCN Numb  010 __ a  9124851   
ISBN Numb  020 __ a  0872878112 (cloth)
ISBN Numb  020 __ a  0872879674 (paper)
F050 SubA  050 __ a  Z693.W94 1991
F082 SubA  082 __ a  025.3--dc20
MEPN Name  100 1_ a  Taylor, Arlene G.,
     Date         d  1941-
Titl Main  245 10 a  Introduction to cataloging and
                     classification /
     Resp         c  Bohdan S. Wynar.
Edit Stmt  250 __ a  8th ed. / by Arlene G. Taylor.
Pubn City  260 __ a  Englewood, CO :
     Publ         b  Libraries Unlimited, Inc.,
     Date         c  1992.
Desc Extn  300 __ a  xvii, 633 p. :
     Othr         b  ills. ;
     Dimn         c  17x25 cm.
Sers Titl  440 _0 a  Library science text series
Note Genl  500 __ a  Includes bibliographical references and
Note Genl  500 __ a  Cataloging taken from Library of Congress
                     CIP, input by Libraries Unlimited.
Subj Topc  650 _0 a  Cataloging.
Subj Topc  650 _0 a  Classification
     Genl         x  Books.
Subj Topc  650 _0 a  Anglo-American cataloguing rules.
AdPN Name  700 1_ a  Wynar, Bohdan S.
     Work         t  Introduction to cataloging and

---> Here is a record for your text.  Does it look familiar?  What is the
Dewey Number?


Template: HOMEPAGE; Bk    Created: 01-27-97    Updated: 02-13-97
Leader: |01017nam  2200265 a 4500|
005:    |19970213085047.0|
008:    |970127s1996    coua          001 0 eng  |

LCCN Numb  010 __ a  9553186 
ISBN Numb  020 __ a  1563083493
F050 SubA  050 __ a  Z693.I56  1996
F082 SubA  082 __ a  025.3--dc20
MEPN Name  100 1_ a  Intner, Sheila S.
Titl Main  245 10 a  Standard cataloging for school and public
                     libraries /
     Resp         c  Shiela S. Intner and Jean Weihs.
Edit Stmt  250 __ a  2nd ed.
Pubn City  260 __ a  Englewood, CO :
     Publ         b  Libraries Unlimited, Inc.,
     Date         c  1996.
Desc Extn  300 __ a  viii, 278 p. :
     Othr         b  ills. ;
     Dimn         c  19x26 cm.
Note Genl  500 __ a  Includes bibliographical references and
Note Genl  500 __ a  Cataloging information from Library of
                     Congress CIP, input by Libraries Unlimited.
Subj Topc  650 _0 a  Cataloging
     Geog         z  United States.
Subj Topc  650 _0 a  Public libraries
     Geog         z  United States.
Subj Topc  650 _0 a  School libraries
     Geog         z  United States.
Subj Topc  650 _0 a  Cataloging
     Geog         z  Canada.
Subj Topc  650 _0 a  Public Libraries
     Geog         z  Canada.
Subj Topc  650 _0 a  School libraries
     Geog         z  Canada.
AdPN Name  700 1_ a  Weihs, Jean Riddle.

--->  Now, just to show the variance of the MARC formats, this is a copy of
the record for your text, as shown by SUNLINK.  What is the Dewey number?
Look at the records for the particular schools, under 999.  Do you see a
bit of variance?  *NOW* think about how you would use the information
provided under 999 to adapt for your purposes.  When you are copy
cataloging, you have to adapt (and delete) records under 999 to show the
specific number for *your* media center.  

HINT:  When you submit your assignments, don't submit records that include 
copy information about other schools!  You have to *edit* this portion of
the MARC record!!!  

HINT, HINT:  Reread the above hint and apply it!

 001       03750221
 008       951221s1996    coua     b    001 0 eng  cam a
 010       $a95053186
 020       $a1563083493
 043       $an-us---
 050 00    $aZ693$b.I56 1996
 082 00    $a025.3$220
 100 1     $aIntner, Sheila S.
 245 10    $aStandard cataloging for school and public libraries
            /$cSheila S. Intner and Jean Weihs.
 250       $a2d ed.
 260       $aEnglewood, Colo. :$bLibraries Unlimited,$c1996.
 300       $aviii, 278 p. :$bill. ;$c27 cm.
 504       $aIncludes bibliographical references (p. 211-213) and
 650  0    $aCataloging$zUnited States.
 650  0    $aPublic libraries$zUnited States.
 650  0    $aSchool libraries$zUnited States.
 700 1     $aWeihs, Jean Riddle.
 999       $4Region 5$3Broward$2$cSilver Lakes MS$f025.3$gINT
 999       $4Region 5$3Dade$2$cSouth Miami MS$fP 025.3 INT
 999       $4Region 2$3Duval$2$cMandarin MS$fPRO 025.3 INT
 999       $4Region 2$3Duval$2$cRibault HS$fP 025.3 INT
 999       $4Region 1$3Escambia$2$cPine Forest HS$eP$f025.3$gINTNER
 999       $4Region 1$3Jackson$2$cMarianna HS$eP$f025.3$gInt
 999       $4Region 3$3Orange$2$cMeadow Woods MS$f025.3 Int
 999       $4Region 5$3Palm Beach$2$cGlades Central HS$fH-GLADES

--->  Here is another title to which your author, Inter, contributed.
Oops, where is the 100 field?  Why isn't it included?  Why are there two
added entries?

 001       03956601
 008       930429s1994    ilu      b    001 0 eng  pam a
 010       $a93001966
 020       $a0838906249 (alk. paper) :$c$$60.00
 043       $an-us---$an-cn---
 050 00    $aZ731$b.G9 1994
 069       $aVF$bfol 00039864$cFollet
 082 00    $a016.02502$220
 245 00    $aGuide to technical services resources /$cPeggy Johnson,
            editor ; with chapters by Sheila S. Intner... [et al.].
 260       $aChicago :$bAmerican Library Association,$c1994.
 300       $axiv, 313 p. ;$c29 cm.
 504       $aIncludes bibliographical references and indexes.
 510 3     $aBooklist.
 510 3     $aSchool Library Media Quarterly (A.A.A.L.).
 520       $aComprehensive and practical guide to the principal
            information resources for technical services
            practitioners, educators, and students.
 521 2     $aProfessional$bFollett Library Resources.
 650  0    $aLibrary technical processes$xBibliography.
 700 1     $aIntner, Sheila S.
 700 1     $aJohnson, Peggy,$d1948-
 999       $4Region 3$3Osceola$2$cSt Cloud HS$f016.02502 GUI

   Help ILL Request Enter a new search 
   Full Record Brief Record MARC Record

--->  Now, go back through these records and look at the subject headings and
added entries.  How are these determined?  Do you see any added entries for
author names?  For uniform titles?  For variant titles?  Hmmm, why were
these added?  

--->  Now, again go through the entries and look at the capitalization and
punctuation for each line.  (Try to overlook the delimiters, as you do.)
But do you see the similarities between the fields for punctuation?  Which
fields have end marks?  Which do not?  Look at the capitalization.  Which
words are capitalized in the subject headings?  In the titles?  In the
notes?  (Which cataloging tool determines the formatting for these
descriptive areas?)

Let's review access points (Chapter 5).  Access points determine how we
*access* the record.  Generally, we access through author, title, or
subject.  You know that the *main entry* of a title is usually the author,
or the title (Rule of Three?), or a corporate author.  

Added entries are also access points that the cataloger designates because
the information is mentioned somewhere in the bibliographic description.
Look back at your examples.  Why is Wynar Bohdan listed as an added entry
in one of the above records?  

As you are creating your records, use this message as one of your many
"checks" to see if you have attended to:

1.  formatting (capitalization, punctuation, spelling, abbreviation, etc.)
2.  added entries
3.  customizing classification numbers and adding shelf marks

Regarding LCC, try to get access to copies of the LC schedules (red books).
Ask a reference librarian if you can look at an example.  If you can, note
the arrangement of the LC schedule.  Look at the directions on how to
classify materials.  Note also geographical designations.

After you have looked at these tools, go to another online catalog:
NOVACAT.  This is NSU's online catalog.  Go to www.nova.edu, then go to the
section on University Libraries and then to NOVACAT.

Do a subject search.  You will be asked whether you want to search in Sears 
or LC.  Choose a record to look at and pay attention to the classification 
number.  Then, look at the subject headings.  Look at the record in both 
Sears and LC formats.  Compare and contrast the classification numbers and 
the subject headings.  Practice with this tool a few times.  Then, next 
week, we will talk at more specifics of subject cataloging.

I hope this message points to interesting aspects that will help you as you
continue with your assignments.

You will be working to learn about the similarities and differences 
between the Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) and the Library
of Congress Classification (LCC) systems.  Although, most of you are
already very familiar with DDC, you may not have used LCC since your
undergraduate school days.  If this is the case, I encourage you, after you
have completed your readings, to go to a university library that uses LCC.
Look for materials in your subject area, track them down on the shelf, and
notice the distinctions in the structure of the number.

By the way, can you distinguish between call number and class number and
book number and shelf mark?  I hope you will be able to do this after you
have carefully read Chapter 9.

Lastly, while you are at your site, be sure to look carefully at your
Abridged Dewey and notice that there is a glossary in the front.  Do you
think you might get some useful information for your assignments there?  If
you are looking for examples of segmentation, you will also wish to look at
examples of CIP data (Hint, hint!).

As you continue with your evaluation and comparison of DDC and LCC, be sure
to spend some time browsing through the DDC's Relative Index.  How is this
arranged?  How will this help you to save time in the media center?  A new
feature of the Sears List of Subject Headings (16th edition) is that its
classification numbers are correlated to those in DDC.  Can you determine
this through your scan of the Relative Index?

Also, in your readings, be sure to pay attention to how biographies can be
classified in media centers.  You will read that the DDC recommendation is
for the biography to be placed in the discipline for which the person is
well known.  What do you think about this method?  Remind us to discuss
this issue.


Chapter 13

Remember that retrospective conversion is part of the work that takes
place before a collection is automated?  The following checklist outlines
the steps taken to prepare a collection for automation.  Even if you are
currently in a school which is automated, you will still need to be
familiar with the process of readying a collection for retrospective
conversion.  Know also that each school or district has its own policy,
based on vendor and district requirements.


>X-URL: http://www.nsls.org/text_only/weeding_ideas.html
>                                 AUTOMATION
>    | Staff | News | Participating Libraries | Awards | User Meetings |
>                         Courses | Weeding Ideas |
>                        WEEDING PROCEDURES CHECKLIST
>                            PRIOR TO AUTOMATION
>   Careful weeding and inventory are the essential first steps in the
>   automation process. A shelf list which does not exactly account for
>   each title will cause endless problems when the database has been
>   created. An absolutely correct inventory will save hours of work
>   later.
>   Key Symbols: (P) = Professional task (C) = Clerical task
>   A. (P) Pull each book from the shelf and verify the accuracy of the
>   information on its shelf list card. Check to see if the book:
>   1. is in good physical condition.
>          2. has the correct borrower's card (check accession number).
>          3. is accurate in today's world.
>          4. is free of bias.
>          5. is curriculum related.
>          6. is an award book, such as a Caldecott or Newbery classic.
>          7. has illustrations which are unusual or of exceptional
>          quality.
>          8. conforms to any other criteria relevant to your school's
>          information needs.
>   B. (P) Evaluation procedures follow for those books you are
>   considering discarding.
>   1. You may want to consult the standard catalogs ( Children's Catalog,
>          Junior High School Catalog, High School Catalog. and/or the
>          specialized indexes).
>          2. You may also want to check Books in Print to determine the
>          availability of a replacement copy.
>          3. Care should be taken to consult with subject specialists,
>          classroom teachers, or department chairpersons before making a
>          final decision regarding the status of the book.
>   C. (P) If the decision is made to retain the book, check the shelf
>   list card for accuracy. Replace the card in the file and reshelve the
>   book.
>   D. (P) If you decide to discard the book, mark the discards on the
>   shelf list using the following procedures:
>   1. If there is only one copy, place the shelf list card in the book
>          pocket and then place the book on a book cart.
>          2. If there are additional copies in the collection, cross off
>          the accession number of the discarded book on its shelf list
>          card.
>   E. For all those books you wish to discard:
>   (C) 1. Stamp "discard" on the borrower's cards, book pocket, and side
>          of the book.
>          (C) 2. For "only" or last copy of a title, pull all catalog
>          cards.
>          (C) 3. If the title was entered in the Nassau School Library
>          System Union Catalog and you are deleting the "only" or last
>          copy of a title, send the shelf list card (or any discarded
>          catalog card) of that title to NSLS for removal from the Union
>          Catalog.
>          (C) 4. Keep a tally by Dewey Decimal classification of all
>          discarded books.
>   F. (P) Before you throw out any books, check district policy. If there
>   is no policy, consult administration and custodial staff for proper
>   disposal.
>   These same procedures may be followed for all other cataloged
>   materials.
>   Prepared by the Weeding Committee under the leadership of
>   Beatrice Baaden, Plainedge UFSD; Theresa Mazzola, Jericho UFSD
>   (1990,1993).
>   Revised: NSLS 1997.
>   For additional information contact:
>     Nassau School Library System
>     BOCES Instructional Services Center
>     21 Chestnut Street
>     Greenvale, NY 11548
>     (516) 626-9408
>    | About Us | Events | Directory | Automation | Catalog | Discovery |
>                              Links | Forums |
>                                    HOME

In the meantime, for those of you who need a break from AACR2r, go to the
site listed below (Integrated Library Systems Reports) to review
information on different online systems.  Your system may be listed, and
you might be able to use some of the content as you evaluate an online


____________________Forward Header_____________________
Subject:    ILSR January 1999 issue 
Date:       1/31/99 8:10 PM

This notice of a free resource of interest to librarians has 
been cross-posted.  Please accept our apologies for any 

The January 1999 issue of Integrated Library System Reports
is now available at http://www.ilsr.com/  - Check out
the following articles/reviews:

The Ideal Procurement Process : The Vendor's Perspective. Chris 
Kirby, former GIS Director of Marketing and Anita Wagner, Senior
Specialist for Gaylord Information Systems share timesaving tips to
make the purchase of an IOLS cost efficient, review when an RFP/RFI is
appropriate, RFP basics, vendor demonstrations, some myths
surrounding consultants and steps toward purchase.

Take Two on InMagic DB/TextWorks. Susan Fingerman,
Principal of SMF Information Services shares her experience in creating
databases for a non-profit institution using InMagic and DB/TextWorks.
InMagic was exactly the right fit for the job. As the organization?s
progressed from internal use only to the Internet to its Intranet,
InMagic also progressed from DOS to Windows to WebPublisher to ODBC
compliant. Ms. Fingerman discusses building InMagic databases not only
the library, but also for other departments in the organization. She
includes tips on customization, MARC record format and more.

On the Road. ALA Midwinter, Computers Online, National
Online/IOLS or SLA. Check out the list of conferences and exhibitors.

featured in ILSR's Great Site Spotlight.

While your there don't forget to check out
the listings of reviews, press releases, etc. that are
updated on a weekly basis.


Chapter 14

As you are beginning to work with MARC formats, you will wish to before
very familiar with the terms fields (subfield and fixed field and control
field and variable field), field tags, and indicators.  Your text (Chapter
14) provides examples of MARC records in a variety of examples from ISM, 
OCLC , RLIN, WLN, etc.  YOU can find examples of other formats through 
SUNLINK, Library of Congress Web Site, and even NOVACAT (el).  I would 
suggest that you begin to explore with these various databases so that you 
begin to recognized that there are consistencies in the fields and tags, 
regardless of the database that produces the record.

The best way to become familiar with the MARC (machine readable cataloging) 
format is by examining many of the records.  A good source of MARC records 
is at SUNLINK (www.sunlink.ucf.edu).  

The record below was searched in the holdings of Orange County for a copy of of
_The View from Saturday_.  On each record returned through SUNLINK, at the
bottom of the record, is a link to the MARC record.

   Bibliographic Record
   Searching : The View from Saturday / E.L. Konigsburg c1996

--->  Let's divide some of these fields.

The fields that begin with 0 are the fixed fields.  They are "fixed"
because the length of the field is a certain length and will always be a
certain length, e.g., the field for the ISBN allows for 10 digits to be
entered.  This field is noted with the field tag 020, i.e., 020 is the tag
(label) for the ISBN fixed field.

Field by field, this record shows:

--->  001 is the Library of Congress Control Number (LCCN) for this title.

 001       01441205

--->  008 tells us when this record was entered (951211), where it was
published (nyu) New York State, and it is a juvenile title written in English.

 008       951211s1996    nyu    j      000 1 eng  nam 8a

--->  020 shows the ISBN.  Now, to get trickier, the $a is an *indicator*
and indicators have different meanings for each field.  In 020, $a means
that the ISBN is shown without hyphens.

 020       $a0590129007

--->  050 shows the Library of Congress Classification for this title.  The
beginning 0 (00) shows that this title is included in the LC collection.

 050 00    $aPZ 7.K8352$bVi 1996

--->  082 shows the Dewey Classification for the title.

 082 00    $a[Fic]$220

--->  Remember what the 100 shows?  Right, the author's name.  So, this is
a main entry under the author's personal name.  The single 1 means that a
single surname will be included in the field.  $a just means that the order 
of the name is last name, first name, middle name.  Remember also that the 
indicators tell the database/system how to behave and how to display data.  

 100 1     $aKonigsburg, E. L.

--->  245 shows the title statement ($a - title proper) and $c is the
statement of responsibility.  The 1 in 14 means that a title-added entry
will be generated by the system.  The 4 in 14 tells the system to skip the
word "The" when it is filing the title.  The title is filed under View
because we skip initial a, an, and the in titles.  (If a, an, or the
appears within the title, we file by that word.)  

 245 14    $aThe View from Saturday /$cE.L. Konigsburg.

--->  This is the edition statement.  Remember where you get edition
information?  This is a variable field.  Note that there are no indicator
numbers after 250.

 250       $a1st ed.

--->  260 shows publication information ($a place, $b name of publisher, $c
date of publication).  Another variable field.  Remember to use the
shortest form for the publisher's name.
 260       $aNew York, N.Y. :$bScholastic, Inc.,$cc1996.

--->  300 is the place for the physical description of the item.  This
title is 160 pages ($a extent) and 23 cm. tall ($c).  Another variable

 300       $a163 p. ;$c23 cm.

--->  520 is the note field and $a designates a summary.  Is this a fixed
or variable field?  How do you know?

 520       $aFour students, with their own individual stories, develop
            a special bond and attract the attention of their teacher,
            a paraplegic, who choses them to represent their
            sixth-grade class in the Academic Bowl competition.

--->  For this record, 650 shows access points through subject (topical)
terms.  How many subjects are noted for this title?  Note that each subject
has a subdivision for the *type* of literature.  What is that type of
literature?  (Where can you find approved subject headings and
subdivisions?  In the _Sears List of Subject Headings_.)  The 1 after 650
designates that these are Sears subject headings.  If the 1 were a 0, we
would know that the headings are LC.
 650  1    $aTeacher-student relationships$xFiction.
 650  1    $aFriendship$xFiction.
 650  1    $aSchools$xFiction.
 650  1    $aContests$xFiction.
 650  1    $aPhysically handicapped$xFiction.

--->  The 900 fields is for local information.  SUNLINK uses 999 to note
where copies are included ($4 region number, $3 county number, $2 name of
school, and $e classification (F for fiction) and $g for cutter (Kon or KON
for Konigsburg. Remember this example when we discuss setting cataloing

 999       $4Region 3$3Brevard$2$cAtlantis ES$eF$gKon
 999       $4Region 3$3Brevard$2$cHoover MS$eF$gKon
 999       $4Region 3$3Brevard$2$cSuntree ES$eF$gKON
 999       $4Region 5$3Broward$2$cSilver Palms ES$fF$gKo
 999       $4Region 2$3Citrus$2$cPleasant Grove Elem$f811$gKON
 999       $4Region 2$3Clay$2$cMontclair Elem$eF$gKON
 999       $4Region 1$3Escambia$2$cBellview MS$eF$gKon
 999       $4Region 1$3Escambia$2$cYniestra ES$eF$gKON
 999       $4Region 2$3Flagler$2$cOld Kings ES$eFic$gKon
 999       $4Region 4$3Hernando$2$cBrooksville ES$eF$gKon
 999       $4Region 4$3Highlands$2$cLake Country ES$eF$gKon
 999       $4Region 4$3Lee$2$cEdgewood ES$eF$gKon
 999       $4Region 4$3Lee$2$cEdison Park School$eF$gKon
 999       $4Region 4$3Lee$2$cGulf ES$eF$gKon
 999       $4Region 4$3Lee$2$cLee MS$eF$gKon
 999       $4Region 4$3Lee$2$cSanibel ES$eF$gKon
 999       $4Region 4$3Lee$2$cSkyline ES$eF$gKon
 999       $4Region 1$3Okaloosa$2$cAntioch ES$eF$gKON
 999       $4Region 3$3Orange$2$cLakemont ES$eF$gKon
 999       $4Region 3$3Orange$2$cLakeview Middle$eF$gKon
 999       $4Region 3$3Osceola$2$cReedy Creek ES$eFIC$gKon
 999       $4Region 5$3Palm Beach$2$cCarver Comm MS$fF KON
 999       $4Region 5$3Palm Beach$2$cLantana ES$fF KON
 999       $4Region 5$3Palm Beach$2$cLiberty Park ES$fF KON
 999       $4Region 5$3Palm Beach$2$cNew Horizons ES$fF KON
 999       $4Region 5$3Palm Beach$2$cOrchard View ES$fF KON
 999       $4Region 5$3Palm Beach$2$cWhispering Pines Elem$fF KON
 999       $4Region 4$3Pinellas$2$cLakewood ES$eF$gKon
 999       $4Region 4$3Pinellas$2$cRiviera Middle$eF$gKON
 999       $4Region 4$3Polk$2$cBoswell ES$eFIC$gKON
 999       $4Region 3$3Seminole$2$cGreenwood MS$eF$gKon
 999       $4Region 3$3Seminole$2$cWekiva ES$eF$gKON
 999       $4Region 3$3Volusia$2$cBurns Oak Hill ES$eF$gKON
 999       $4Region 3$3Volusia$2$cChisholm ES$eF$gKON
 999       $4Region 3$3Volusia$2$cDeLand MS$eF$gKON
 999       $4Region 3$3Volusia$2$cDiscovery Elem$eF$gKON
 999       $4Region 3$3Volusia$2$cForest Lake Elem$eF$gKON
 999       $4Region 3$3Volusia$2$cHolly Hill MS$eF$gKON
 999       $4Region 3$3Volusia$2$cOrange City ES$eF$gKON
 999       $4Region 3$3Volusia$2$cSpruce Creek ES$eF$gKON
 999       $4Region 3$3Volusia$2$cSunrise ES$eF$gKON
 999       $4Region 3$3Volusia$2$cSweetwater Elem$eF$gKON

   Help ILL Request Enter a new search 
   Full Record Brief Record MARC Record

I hope this description of this record help you to understand the MARC
format.  We will look at several of these records, in depth, to help you to
gain experience in *reading* the records.  Hopefully, this will help you to
become aware of the types of information you will need to include as you
develop your records.

It would be interesting if you could look at a record for this title at a
local media center to compare the formats.

Again, what does MARC stand for?

Following is an example of a MARC record for the EM 515 text.  Can you tell
me what the 100 and 245 fields represent?  Where is the imprint
information?  Is there a note?

Be sure to keep up your practice with *reading* MARC records!

001    69013223 //r914
003 DLC
005 19910221165921.9
008 690417s1969    nyu      b    001 0 eng
010   $a   69013223 //r914
040   $aDLC$cDLC$dDLC
050 00$aZ711$b.K32
082 00$a011/.02
100 10$aKatz, William A.,$d1924-
245 10$aIntroduction to reference work$c[by] William A. Katz.
260 0 $aNew York,$bMcGraw-Hill$c[1969]
300   $a2 v.$c23 cm.
490 0 $aMcGraw-Hill series in library education
504   $aIncludes bibliographies.
505 0 $av. 1. Basic information sources.--v. 2. Reference services.
650  0$aReference services (Libraries)
650  0$aReference books$xBibliography.

   Labeled display
   This display was generated by the CNIDR Web-Z39.50 gateway, version

Here is another example of a MARC record that was pulled from the NOVACAT
collection.  (This is, coincidentally, a record for a title that I
recommended to you today.)

A relatively short record, what do you know about this title from the
record?  Where is the 100 field?  Who is the publisher?  How many pages
does this title have?  Does it have a bibliography?  How do you know?  Are
there any added entries?  Why/not?

Finally look in the 949 local field.  (Do you recall that the local field
for the MARC records is 999?  Variance in the 9xx field is common.)  Do you
have any ideas on what the content of 949 means here?  If you were to use
this record for copy cataloging, what would you need to change or edit?

As you continue to practice "critically" reading MARC records, I hope the
content starts to make more sense to you in terms of consistency and


001    37806130 
003    OCoLC 
005    19980127132859.0 
008    971007s1998    ilu      b    000 0 eng  pam a  
010    97041145 
020    0838934765 (alk. paper) 
040    DLC|cDLC|dFNN 
043    n-us--- 
049    FNNN 
050 00 Z695.1.C6|bC37 1998 
245 00 Cataloging correctly for kids :|ban introduction to the 
       tools /|cSharon Zuiderveld, editor. 
250    3rd ed. 
260    Chicago :|bAmerican Library Association,|c1998. 
300    xi, 116 p. ;|c23 cm. 
504    Includes bibliographical references (p. 105-113). 
650  0 Cataloging of children's literature|zUnited States. 
700 1  Zuiderveld, Sharon. 
949  1 |lmlib|i38132100865143 

I found the list of punctuation for end tags!  You may wish to save or note
the source of this message for your days in the center when you have to
*proofread* your catalog!


>Overall, tags accept  abbreviations & other marks of punctuation or marks of
>ellipsis as exceptions.
>NEVER                               ALWAYS
>001                                      100
>020                                      110
>050                                      111
>240                                      130
>246                                       245 MUST END WITH PERIOD
>440                                       250 MUST END WITH PERIOD
>490                                       260
>536                                       300
>985                                        500 MUST END WITH PERIOD
>                                               7xx
>                                               8xx


Chapter 15

As you are reading about the background information on cataloging and as
you are beginning to catalog materials, I want you to start thinking about
whether you would wish to *catalog* Internet sites for your students.  Most
of the responses below are from public or university libraries, but their
comments are still realistic and applicable to us.  I see a few trends:

1.  Catalog what is requested by in-house staff
2.  List the resources on a Web page only
3.  Catalog only the items for which you have purchased online versions
4.  Catalog the items that have been evaluted and established through
sources, such as OCLC

What do you think you will do for your media center?  Do you, or will you,
have a policy?  Is there a district policy for this in your area?

Recently, I visited an elementary media center that was using the
Accelerated Reader titles at a fast and furious pace!  Students were racing
into the center during an *open* period to check out titles to read so that
they could accumulate points.  The media specialist had, as the principal
requested, labeled each title with a yellow label stating the number of
points the book was worth for the competition.

Issues:  What happens when the labels fall off the titles?  What if a
teacher wants a list of the titles by number of points?  What if a teacher
wants a list of authors who are included in the Accelerated Reader group?

What, if anything, would you do to database records to designate these
titles and related points?  *How* would you design the process?  I look
forward to seeing who has ideas on how to handle this situation.

When in your media center, you will wish to make sure that you have current
catalogs from vendors and jobbers.  When I last requested a catalog from
Brodart, I was happily surprised to receive *TitleFlight*, which is
Brodart's CD-ROM catalog of books for children and young adults.  You can
also request one at 1-800-233-8467.

The neat thing about this CD-ROM version is, like with all CD-ROM reference
products, your search is quicker, more efficient, and accurate.  Several
search modes are offered (by Dewey, grade, publication date) and you can
even create bibliographies and save search files for later ordering through
a Rose order.

TitleFlight does require a PC with at least a 386 processor and DOS 5.0, or

So, you can search by Dewey, which will serve as a sanity check when you
are classifying materials, and you can verify ISBNs, publication
information, etc.  I hope you will request one of these catalogs for use as
a reference tool in your media center.

A few closing thoughts on EM 540:

1.  Rest assured that it takes a while to develop a working knowledge of
cataloging and classification!  For those of you who are secretly thinking
that you are glad to be "through with cataloging," think again!  Elements
of cataloging, classification, and bibliographic records will follow you
for the rest of your media center days, so keep in mind that you will need
to continue your study that was begun in 540!

2.  Remember that we discussed the importance of keeping updated cataloging
materials in your media center?  The Concise AACR2r will be updated with a
new edition available in April.  Call ALA Editions to find out about
ordering a new copy for your media center.  The Sears List (16th) will
probably become the 17th in 2000 or 2001, so keep an eye out for a review
or call Forest Press for more information.  (I think these
addresses/toll-free numbers are listed in your course syllabus, or contact
information is listed in our faq file.)

3.  As an ongoing project, think of participating in SUNLINK's Weed of the
Month Club.  In addition to helping you with collection development, you
will increase your knowledge of bibliographic records.

4.  Several of you indicated that your district is in the process of
updating their OPACs.  Try to get involved in the process!  Find out about
the OPAC contenders!  Read online updates and journal reviews.

5.  Finally, the best bibliographic records in the world are meaningless to
your students unless they know their significance and how to use them.  So
think about how you are going to teach your students related skills and how
to use the OPAC.  Some of you indicated that items were not available for
your OPAC or that the costs were too high.  What types of materials (posters, 
flyers, cheat sheets, etc.) can you develop that will be meaningful in your 
media center?  (Could you possibly develop some of these materials as part
of your EM 520 or 545 [video] course?)

Good luck as you continue with your program.  Please e-mail me if you have
other questions.

Do we really need to be concerned about how to list bibliographic
information in a reference list?


You should have a copy of the Publication Manual of the American
Psychological Association.  Also, there are online Websites that offer
examples of APA form and style, such as Electronic Style - APA.

When considering information for the citation, don't forget
appropriate volume, issue, and page numbers.  In other words, the citation
should provide enough information so that I can track down the exact same
source that you used to answer your question.  Also, even if you photocopy
the page that answers the question, I will still need the complete

Is there a jury-refereed journal for media specialists?

Before you leave this course, be sure to visit the new home for SLMR 
(School Library Media Research)--the only jury-refereed journal for 
school library media specialists!  I believe this topic on information 
overload for students is timely, don't you?  Also, for those of you who 
are beginning to think about practicum topics, you should become very 
familiar with this title for the wealth of ideas on trends and subjects 
to research.

What is the process for taking tests and getting grades?

Your test will be administered at your site. This test is a closed-book/no 
note test that covers many of the topics discussed during audiobridge, 
facilitated sessions, in assignments, and through e-mail messages.  

Please be sure that you have submitted all of your assignments either
through your facilitator or by mailing them directly to me.  All materials
are due by the last class meeting.  Grades are to be submitted within one
week of the last class meeting, however, this is usually not possible since
we do not receive materials from the sites by that time.

You will received notice of your grades through the Registrar's Office in a 
few weeks after the class ends.  Just so that you know the process, as soon 
as I have received and reviewed your assignments, I submit the grades to 
Mr. Cedric Thompson at GTEP.  He then inputs the grades into the online SIS 
(Student Information System).  The Registrar's Office then processes grade 
reports and sends them to the student.

Do you have any other URLs that we can use for this course?

Cataloging Sites and Resources

We would like to look at links that would specifically support DDC.

Dewey Decimal Classification Sources

Are there other general URLs that we can use for other courses, too?

Professional Information, Organizations, Etc.

Now, I need some resources for technology for my school.  Do you have more URLs?

Online Resources and Utilities

If you have further questions, please contact Jan Yates. This FAQ is copyrighted by Jan M. Yates, 1999. All rights reserved.