Some people have been abusing this web resource by claiming that it supports the claim that "fracking" which is properly called "hydrofracturing" induces earthquakes.
This is untrue. None of the the papers on this website investigates or supports the claim that hydrofracturing induces earthquakes.
All legitimate research has found no evidence of this. "Injection induced earthquakes" are NOT caused by hydrofracturing. Injection of fluids
for the purpose of waste disposal or well stimulation is NOT "fracking." Injection of fluids CAN induce earthquakes in some circumstances.
Hydrofracturing has NOT been found to induce earthquakes.
M.U. Ahmad & J.A. Smith, Earthquakes, Injection
Wells, and the Perry Nuclear Power Plant, Cleveland, Ohio," 16 Geology 739
M.U. Ahmad & J.A. Smith, "Reply to Comment on
"Earthquakes, injection Wells, and the Perry Nuclear Power Plant,
Cleveland, Ohio," 17 Geology 383 (1989)
Jon P. Ake, "Induced Microseismicity Associated with Deep-well Disposal of
Brine at Paradox Valley, Colorado," [abstract only] EOS, Proc. Amer. Geophys.
Union, Abstracts 473 (1994)
Jon P. Ake, "Microseismicity Induced by Fluid Injection in the Paradox
Valley of Southwestern Colorado," [abstract only] 63 Seismological Research
Letters 19 (1992)
John G. Armbruster, Leonardo Seeber, K. Evans, "The July 1987 Ashtabula
Earthquakes (M=3.6) Sequence in Northeastern Ohio and a Deep Fluid
Injection Well," 58 Seismological Research Letters p.##? (Sept.-Dec. 1987).
J.G. Armbruster & Leonardo Seeber, "Natural and Induced Seismicity in
the Lake Erie - Lake Ontario Region," [abstract] EOS, Trans. Am. Geophysical
Union 288 (1993)
D. Bane & Michael Fehler, Observations of Long Period Earthquakes
Accompanying Hydraulic Fracturing, 13 Geophys. Res. Lett. 149 (1986)
George E. Bardwell, Some Statistical Features of the Relationship
Between Rocky Mountain Arsenal Waste Disposal and Frequency of Earthquakes,
3 Mountain Geologist 37 (1966).
George Bardwell, Some Statistical Features of the Relationship Between
Rocky Mountain Arsenal Waste Disposal and Frequency of Earthquakes,
Engineering Geology Case Histories No. 8, 33, Geological Society of
Lisa V. Block, Jon P. Ake, and Dan R.H. O'Connell, Using Induced
Hypocenters to Characterize Subsurface Fluid Flow at The Paradox Valley,
Colorado, Injection Well, [abstract only] 76 EOS Proceedings of the Am.
Geophys. Union Fall Meeting Abstracts F354 (1995).
Lisa V. Block, C. H. Cheng, Michael C. Fehler, and W. Scott Phillips
Seismic imaging using microearthquakes induced by hydraulic fracturing, 59
Geophysics 102 (1994)
M. Board, T. Rorke, G. Williams & N. Gay, Fluid Injection for Rockburst
Control in Deep Mining, Proceedings, U.S. Symp. on Rock Mechanics, 111 (1992)
Rabee F. Bou & Pradeep Talwani, "Was the Magnitude 4.7 Earthquake of June
1993 near Burgan Oil Field, Kuwait, Induced?," 74 EOS, Proceedings of the Am.
Geophys. Union Fall Meeting Abstracts 448 (1993).
Martin Brudy, "Stress Magnitude and Orientation to a Depth of 9 km at
the KTB Drill Site," [abstract] EOS, Trans. American Geophysical Union F558
S. Carlson, Investigations of Recent and Historical Seismicity in
East Texas, Master's Thesis, Univ. Texas at Austin, 197pp. (1984)
F. H. Cornet & O. Scotti, "Analysis of Induced Seismicity for Fault Zone
Identification," [Abstract] 30 Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. & Geomech. 789 (1992)
F. H. Cornet, Y. Jianmin & L. Martel, "Stress Heterogeneities and Flow
Paths in a Granite Rock Mass," Pre-Workshop Volume for the Workshop on
Induced Seismicity, 33rd U.S. Symposium on Rock Mechanics 184 (1992)
Randal Tom Cox, Possible Triggering of Earthquakes by Underground Waste
Disposal in the El Dorado, Arkansas Area, 62 Seismological Res. Letters 113
S. Crampen & D.C. Booth, Shear-wave Splitting Showing Hydraulic Dilation
of Pre-existing Joints in Granite, 1 Scientific Drilling 21 (1989)
R.V. de la Cruz & C. B. Raleigh, Absolute Stress Measurements at the
Rangely Anticline, Northwestern Colorado, 9 Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. 625
Darlene A. Cypser &
Scott D. Davis, The
State of Corporate Knowledge on Injection Induced Earthquakes: An Informal
Survey, [ abstract only] EOS, Trans. Amer.
Geophys. Union Abstracts 472 (1994)
Scott D. Davis,
Investigations of Natural and Induced Seismicity in the Texas Panhandle,
Master's Thesis, University of Texas at Austin, 230 pp. (1985)
Scott D. Davis
Investigations Concerning the Nature of Aftershocks and Earthquakes
Induced by Fluid Injection, Doctoral Thesis, University of Texas at
Austin 157 pp. (1989)
Scott D. Davis & Cliff
Frohlich, New Objective Criteria to Determine if Fluid Injection
Has Induced Earthquakes [abstract] 68 EOS, Trans. Am. Geophys. Union
Scott D. Davis & Cliff
Frohlich, Potential for Earthquakes Associated with Fluid Injection
[abstract] 69 EOS, Trans, Am. Geophys. Union 1315 (1988).
Scott D. Davis &
Cliff Frohlich, Did (or Will) Fluid Injection Cause Earthquakes: Criteria
for a Rational Assessment, 64 Seismol. Res. Letters 207 (1993).
Scott D. Davis & Wayne D. Pennington, Induced Seismic Deformation
in the Cogdell Oil Field of West Texas, 79 Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 1477
Department of the Army, Summary History of Rocky Mountain Arsenal,
(manuscript -- available at the Western History Collection, Denver Public
J. H. Dieterich, C. B. Raleigh & J. B. Bredehoeft, Earthquake
Triggering by Fluid Injection at Rangely, Colorado, Proc. Int. Soc.
Rock Mech. and Int. Assoc. Eng. Geol. Symp: Percolation Through
Fissured Rock Paper T2-B (1972)
Donald S. Dreesen, Mark V. Malzahn, Michael C. Fehler & Zora V. Dash,
Identification of MHF fracture Planes and Flow Paths; A Correlation of
Well Log Data with Patterns in Locations of Induced Seismicity, 11 Trans.
Geothermal Resources Council 339 (1987)
D. G. Evans & D.W. Steeples, Microearthquakes near the Sleepy Hollow oil
field, southwestern Nebraska, 77 Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 132 (1986).
David M. Evans, The Denver Area Earthquakes and the Rocky Mountain
Arsenal Disposal Well, 3 The Mountain Geologist 23 (1966). [Reprinted in
Engineering Case Histories No. 8, 25, Geological Society of America (1970)]
David M. Evans, Man-Made Earthquakes in Denver, Geotimes 11
K.F. Evans, Assessing Regional Potential for Induced Seismicity from
Crustal Stress Measurements: an Example from northern Ohio, Proc., Symp.
Seismic Hazards, Ground Motions, Soil-Liquefaction and Engineering Practice
in North America, National Center for Earthquake Engineering Res., 99
(Jacob, Klaus H., ed. 1987)
Michael Fehler, L. House & H. Kaieda, Determining Planes along which
Earthquakes Occur: Method and Application to Earthquakes Accompanying
Hydraulic Fracture 92 J. Geophys. Res 9407 (1987)
Michael Fehler & W. S. Phillips, Simultaneous Inversion for Q and Source
Parameters of Microearthquakes Accompanying Hydraulic Fracturing in Granitic
Rock, 81 Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 553 (1991)
Joseph A. Fischer, Warren E. Latimer, James A. Rhodes, Injection Wells
and The January 31, 1986 Ohio Earthquake, 3 Pacific Conference on Earthquake
Engineering 173 (1987)
Joseph A. Fischer & Richard W. Greene, Deep Well-Induced
Seismicity, 25 Proc. Symp. Eng. Geol. & Geotech. Eng. 267 (1989)
Joseph A. Fischer, Natural and Induced Seismicity in Ohio, Engineering
Seismology and Site Response: Proc. 4th Annual International Conf. on Soil
Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering 12 (Cakmak, A.S., ed. 1989)
Joseph A. Fischer, Engineering Mechanics Theory and Natural and Induced
Seismicity in Ohio and Western New York, 1 Proc. 4th US National Conference
on Earthquake Engineering 649 (1990)
Jon B. Fletcher & Lynn R. Sykes, Earthquakes Related to
Hydraulic Mining and Natural Seismic Activity in Western New York
State, 82 J. Geophys. Res. 3767 (1977)
Zhao Genmo, Chen Huaran, Ma Shuquin & Zhang Deyuan, Research
on Earthquakes Induced by Water Injection in China, 145 Pure &
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James F. Gibbs, John H. Healy C. Barry Raleigh & John Coakley,
Earthquakes in the Oil Field at Rangely Colorado, U.S. Geological Survey
Open-File Report (1972)
James F. Gibbs, J.H. Healy, B. Raleigh & J. Coakley, Seismicity in the
Rangely, Colorado, area: 1962-1970, 63 Bulletin Seismol. Soc. Am. 1557 (1973)
A.S.P. Green, R.H. Jones & R. Baria, A Correlation between
Induced Seismicity and Fluid FLow during Fluid Injection into the
Carnmenellis Granite, Symp. Proc. Int. Conf on Fluid Flow in
Fractured Rocks 447 (1988)
B. C. Haimson, Earthquake Stresses at Rangely, Colorado, New Horizons in
Rock Mechanics; Earthquakes and Other Dynamic Phenomena, 14 Symp. Rock Mech.
Proc. 689 (H. R. Hardy & R. Stefanko, ed.,1972)
Hans-Peter Harje, Triggering Earthquakes in the Continental Crust at
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S.T. Harding, Induced Seismicity in the Cogdell Canyon Reef
Oil Field, USGS Open File Report 81-167 (1981)
S.T. Harding, D. Carver, R.F. Henrisey, R.L. Dart & C.J.
Langer, The Scurry County, Texas, Earthquake Series of 1977-1978,
Induced Seismicity? [abstract] 49 Earthquake Notes 3, 14-15 (1978)
Schulte-Theis Hartwig, Cluster Analysis and Location of Seismic Events
Induced by Fluid Injection in the KTB-Borehole, Bavaria, Germany, [abstract]
EOS, Trans. Am. Geophysical Union F559 (1995)
J. H. Healy, W.W. Rubey, D.T. Griggs & C.B. Raleigh, The
Denver Earthquakes, 161 Science 1301 (1968).
J.H. Healy, et al, Geophysical and Geological Investigations
Relating to Earthquakes in the Denver Area, Colorado, U.S.
Geological Survey Open File Report #832 (1966)
Robert B. Herrman, Sam-Kuen Park & Chien-Ying Wang, The Denver
Earthquakes of 1967-1968, 71 Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 731 (1981)
John J. Hickey & John Vecchioli, Subsurface Injection of Liquid Waste
with Emphasis on Injection practices in Florida, Hydrogeology and Management
of Hazardous Waste by Deep-Well Disposal, 12 Int'l Contrib. Hydrogeology 99
(Philip E. La Moreaux & Jaroslav Vrba, ed., 1990)
John C. Hollister & Robert J. Weimer, Geophysical and Geological
Studies of the Relationship between the Denver Earthquakes and the Rocky
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D. B. Hoover & J.A. Dietrich, Seismic Activity During the
1968 Test Pumping at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal Disposal Well, U.S.
Geological Circ. 613 (1969).
Robert B. Horner, J.E. Barclay, J.M. MacRae, R.J. Wetmiller & I. Asudeh,
Earthquakes and Hydrocarbon Production in the Fort St. John Area of
Northeastern British Columbia, EOS Trans. Amer. Geophys. Union, Abstracts 472 (1994)
Leigh House & W. Scott Phillips, "Earthquakes Induced by Hydraulic
Injections at Yosemite National Park," [abstract] EOS Trans. Amer. Geophys.
Union, Abstracts 582 (1993)
H. Kanamori & E. Hauksson, "A Slow Earthquake in the Santa
Maria Basin, California," 82 Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 2087 (1992)
S. Kapotas & E.R. Kanasewich, "Microseismic Activity & Stress
Orientations in Cold Lake Oilfields, Alberta" [abstract only] 60
Seismol. Res. Lett. 31 (1989)
R.T. Kent & N.E. Bentley, Risk Assessment of Deep Well
Injection Systems, Hazardous Wastes in Ground Water: A Soluable
Problem, National Water Well Association, Dublin, OH 233 (1985)
Robert M. Kirkham & William P. Rogers, Earthquake Potential in
Colorado, (Colorado Geological Survey Bulletin 43, 1981)
Robert M. Kirkham & William P. Rogers, Colorado Earthquake Data
and Interpretations 1867 to 1985, Colorado Geological Survey Bulletin 46,
Robert M. Kirkham & William P. Rogers, "An Interpretation of the
November 7, 1882 Colorado Earthquake," Contributions to Colorado Seismicity
and Tectonics--A 1986 Update 122 Colo. Geol. Surv. Spec. Publ. 28, W.
Rogers & R. Kirkham, ed. (1986).
W. B. Klemt, "Deep Well Injection of Industrial Hazardous Waste
In Texas, Issues in Groundwater Management," 12th Water Res. Symp.
P. J. Kendrick, "Deep Well Injection: Sweeping the Problem
Under the Carpet," 49 J. Water Pollution Control Fed. 187 (1977)
Peter Knoll, "The Fluid-Induced Tectonic Rockburst of March 13, 1989
in the "Werra" Potash District of the GDR (first results)," 99 Gerland
Beitrage zur Geophysik 239 (1990)
Peter Knoll, "The Dynamic Excess Pore Pressure Concept - A New Possible
Fracture Mechanism for Fluid-Induced Seismic Events," 99 Gerland Beitrage zur
Geophysik 247 (1990)
E. L. Majer & T.W. Doe, "Studying Hydrofractures by High Frequency Seismic
Monitoring," 23 Int. J. Rock Mech. Min Sci & Geomech 185 (1986)
Maurice W. Major & Ruth B. Simon, A Seismic Study of the Denver (Derby)
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J. C. Martin, The Effect of Fluid Pressure on Effective
Stresses and Induced Faulting, 80 J. Geophys. Res. 3783 (1975).
K. Masuda, Laboratory Study of Effects of In Situ Stress State and
Strengh on Fluid-Induced Seismicity 30 Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sic &
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R. E. Mattick & D.B. Hoover, Seismic-reflection records from a
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D .M. McCann, "Induced Seismicity in Engineering," 23 Eng. Geol
Spec. Pubs 397 (1988)
W. C. McClain, On Earthquakes Induced by Underground Fluid Injection,
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Microearthquakes of the Gobles Oil Field Area of Southwestern Ontario,"
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W. G. Milne & M.J. Berry, "Induced Seismicity in Canada," 10
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R. C. Munson, Relationship of Effect of Waterflooding of the
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Alexander C.G. Nagelhout, Induced Seismicity Associated with Hydrocarbon
Extraction, Fluid Injection and Underground Gas Storage, Master's Thesis,
Delft University of Technology, Delft, Netherlands (1996)
Craig Nicholson, Earthquakes Associated with Deep Well
Activities--Comments and Case Histories, 33rd U.S. Symposium on
Rock Mechanics 1079 (1992).
Craig Nicholson & Robert L. Wesson, Earthquake Hazard
Associated with Deep Well Injection--A Report to the U.S. Environmental
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Craig Nicholson & Robert L. Wesson, Triggered Earthquakes and
Deep Well Activities, 139 Pure & Applied Geophysics 562 (1992)
Craig Nicholson, E. Roeloffs & Robert L. Wesson, "The Northeastern
Ohio Earthquake of 31 January: Was it Induced?" 78 Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am.
Masakazu Ohtake, "Seismic Activity Induced by Water Injection at
Matsushiro, Japan," 22 J. Phys. Earth 163 (1974)
G.R. Pickett, Properties of the Rocky Mountain Arsenal Disposal Reservoir
and Their Relationship to Derby Earthquakes, 63 Q. Colo. School Mines 73 (Jan.
R. J. Pine & A.S. Batchlor, Downward Migration of Shearing on Jointed
Rock During Hydraulic Injections, 21 Int. J. Rock. Mech. Min. Sci. &
Geomech. Abstr. 249 (1984)
Arthur M. Piper, Disposal of Liquid Wastes by Injection
Underground -- Neither Myth nor Millennium, U.S. Geological
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L.M. Plotnikova, M.G. Flynova & V.I. Machmudova, Induced
Seismicity in the Gazly Gas Field Region, 99 Gerlands Beitrage zur
Geophysik 389 (1990)
C. B. Raleigh, J. H. Healy & J. D. Bredehoeft, An Experiment
in Earthquake Control at Rangely, Colorado, 191 Science 1230
C. B. Raleigh, Earthquakes and Fluid Injection, Underground
Waste Management and Environmental Implications, American Assoc. Pet.
Geol. 273 (1972)
C. B. Raleigh, J.H. Healy and J.D. Bredehoeft, Faulting and
Crustal Stress at Rangely, Colorado, Flow and Fracture of Rocks,
Geophysical Monograph #16, American Geophysical Union (Heard, et
al ed. 1972)
E. Roeloffs, Craig Nicholson & Robert L. Wesson, "Comment to
'Earthquakes, injection wells, and the Perry Nuclear Power Plant,
Cleveland, Ohio,'" 17 Geology 382 (1989).
Ben F. Rummerfield, A. Peter Olsons and D. B. Hoover, "Seismic
Survey in the Region of Recent Earthquake Activity near Denver,
Colorado," 33 Geophysics 915 (1968).
Louis J. Scopel, "Pressure Injection Disposal Well, Rocky Mountain Arsenal,
Denver, Colorado," Engineering Case Histories No. 8, Geological Society of
Leonardo Seeber & John G. Armbruster, Natural and Induced Seismicity
in the Lake Erie-Lake Ontario Region: Reactivation of Ancient Faults with
Little Neotectonic Displacement, (in English) 47 Geographie Physique et
Quarternaire 363 (1993)
Leonardo Seeber & John. G. Armbruster, Recent and Historic Seismicity
in Northeastern Ohio: Reactivation of Precambrian Faults and the Role of
Deep Fluid Injection, Preliminary Report to the Nuclear Regulatory
Stephen H. Stow & Kenneth S. Johnson, Environmental Impacts
Associated with Deep-Well Disposal, Hydrogeology and Management
of Hazardous Waste by Deep-Well Disposal, 12 Int'l Contrib.
Hydrogeology 77 (Philip E. La Moreaux & Jaroslav Vrba, ed., 1990)
Synthetic Record Study and Velocity Determinations of U.S. Corps of
Engineers Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Adams County, Colorado, Open-File Report
S. Tabeli & F. Cornet, "Analysis of Microseismicity Induced by a Fluid
Injection in a Granitic Rock Mass," 14 Geophys. Res. Lett 227 (1987)
T. L. Teng, C.R. Real & T.L. Henyey, Microearthquakes and Waterflooding
in Los Angeles 63 Bull. Seismol. Soc. of Am. 859 (1973).
T. Terashima, Survey on Induced Seismicity at Mishraq in Iraq, 29 J.
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Busselburg Thorsten, Source Perameters of Seismic Events Induced by
Fluid Injection at 9 km Depth in the KTB-Borehole [abstract] EOS, Trans.
Am. Geophysical Union F559 (1995)
Robert L. Wesson & Craig Nicholson, USGS Study of the Northeastern Ohio
Earthquake of January 31, 1986, U. S. Geological Survey Preliminary Open FIle
Robert L. Wesson, Studies of the January 31, 1986 Northeastern Ohio
Earthquake, Report to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, U.S. Geological
Survey Open File Report 86-331 (1986)
J.K. Whyatt, T.J. Williams, W. Blake & D. Cuvelier, Fault Injection
Experimentation at the Luck Friday Main: a Progress Report, Pre-Workshop
Volume for the Workshop on Induced Seismicity, 33rd U.S. Symp. on Rock
Mech. 195 (1992)
J. M. Yin & F. H. Cornet, "Fracture Ractivation and Induced Microseismicity
Under Variable Pore Pressure," [abstract] EOS, Trans. Am. Geophysical Union 444
Bochnog Zhang, Rui Chang, Hong Li, Yingman Qi, Jizhen Mao, Peng Liu &
Fangquan Li, "Relationship between Seismicity and Water Injection in
Ziliujing Anticline," 6 Acta Seismologica Sinica 769 (1993)
Genmo Zhao, Huaran Chen, Shuquin Ma and Deyuan Zhang, Research of
Earthquakes Induced by Water Injection in China, 145 Pure & Applied
Geophys. 59-68 (1995).
Gen Mo Zhao & Gang sheng Yang, Focal Stress Field by Water Injection-
Induced Earthquakes and Characteristics of Coda Wave Attenuation, (Includes a
summary in English), 12 Ti chen ti chih (Seismology and Geology) 303 (1990)
Mark D. Zoback, Frictional Analysis of Induced Earthquakes near 9km
Depth at the KTB site: Evidence for the Brittle/Ductile Transition?
EOS Trans. Amer. Geophys. Union, Abstracts F533 (1995)