References and Bibliography


  1. Identification Guide to the Trees of Canada, Jean Lauriault, Fitzhenry & Whiteside, 1989.
  2. The Plant Book, D.J. Mabberley, Cambridge University Press, 1987.
  3. The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Trees, Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., 1980.
  4. Forest Trees of the United States and Canada, and How to Identify Them, Elbert L. Little,Jr., Dover Publications Inc.,1979.
  5. The Botanical World, D.K. Northington and J.R.Goodin, Times Mirror/Mosby College Publishing, 1984.
  6. Trees of North America and Europe,  Roger Phillips, Random House, 1978.


  1. Conifers in the Garden,  American Conifer Association.
  2. The Conifer Conservation Program,  Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh.
  3. Many Botany Links,  Oberon University.
  4. The Families of Flowering plants: Descriptions and Illustrations ,  Watson, L., and Dallwitz, M.J., Cornell University.
  5. The Model Forest Program  Canadian Forest Service.
  6. Botanic Gardens  University of Delaware.
  7. Urban Forestry  Michigan State University Extension Database.
  8. Trees  The DENE Culture - Northwest Territories, Canada.
  9. Oregon's Heritage Trees
  10. The NCSU Arboretum ,  North Carolina State University.